Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest islands in the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily and Sardinia. Italy shares its northern Alpine boundary with France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. The independent states of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within the Italian Peninsula, while Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland.
The total land area of Italy is approximately 301,328 square kilometres. It is approximately 1,130 kilometres long and 160 kilometres wide for most of the peninsular. At its widest point in the north, it is 480 kilometres wide and at its narrowest point in the centre, it is 112 kilometres wide. Geographically, It is mostly mountainous, with narrow coastal plains. In general, Italy has a Mediterranean climate. It is mainly mild on the coast, becoming colder inland in the mountains. It can be extremely hot everywhere in the summer, and extremely cold in the north during the winter.